The Weighing of Lives in War

Combatants and Civilians in the Jus in Bello

April 11 -
 12, 2014


Professor M. Cherif Bassiouni

DePaul University College of Law

Professor Saba Bazargan

University of California, San Diego

Professor Joseph Capizzi

The Catholic University of America

Mr. Bill Craven

Federal Systems

Ambassador Dell Dailey

Dell Dailey and Family

Professor Zlatan Damnjanovic

University of Southern California Dornsife

Professor Jovana Davidovic

University of Iowa

Professor Janina Dill

University of Oxford

Professor Yoram Dinstein

Tel Aviv University

Judge Michael E. Dunlavey

Major General, United States Army (Retired)

Professor Claire Finkelstein

University of Pennsylvania Law School

Major Ian Fishback

West Point

Professor Helen Frowe

Stockholm University

Ms. Ashling Gallagher

University of Pennsylvania

Professor Kevin Govern

Ave Maria School of Law

Professor Adil Ahmad Haque

Rutgers School of Law

Professor Kevin Heller

School of Law at SOAS, University of London

Dr. Jesse Kirkpatrick

US Naval Academy

Professor Michael Lewis

Ohio Northern University, Pettit College of Law

Professor Sharon Lloyd

University of Southern California Dornsife

Professor Duncan MacIntosh

Dalhousie University

Professor Larry May

Vanderbilt University

Professor Christopher Morris

University of Maryland

Professor Michael Newton

Vanderbilt Law School

Professor Jens Ohlin

Cornell University Law School

Professor Mark Osiel

University of Iowa College of Law

Mr. Ilya Rudyak

University of Pennsylvania Law School

Mr. Jonathan Todd

University of Pennsylvania Law School

Colonel Andrew Wilcox

U.S. Marine Corps Commanding Officer, NROTC

Dr. Stephen Xenakis

Physicians for Human Rights, Center for Translational Medicine

Mr. Jules Zacher

Attorney at Law

Background Readings

General Theory and Readings

Waltman, G. Prosecuting ISIS. University of Mississippi School of Law, 2014.

List of All Security Council resolutions dealing with Terrorism

Govern, K. The Legal Way Ahead Between War And Peace (Chapter 16) in, Enemy Combatants, Terrorism, and Armed Conflict Law: A Guide to the Issues. 2008.

Terrorism, Counter-Terrorism and International Humanitarian Law. International Committee of the Red Cross, October 2016. 

What Does International Humanitarian Law Say About Terrorism? International Committee of the Red Cross, January 2015.

Article III Courts

Vladek, S. The Supreme Court, the War on Terrorism and the Separation of PowersA.B.A. Human Rights Magazine. Vol. 38, No. 1, 2011.

American Bar Association Standing Committee on Law and National Security. Trying Terrorists in Article III Courts, Challenges and Lessons Learned. 2009.

Donahue, L. Terrorism Trials in Article III CourtsHarvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, Vol. 38, 2015: 105-143.

Baker, J., Defending the Rule of Law: The Military Commissions Defense Organization. The Champion, Sept-Oct. 2015.

Baker, J. Keynote Speech on Military Commissions,  NATSECDEF Conference, Georgetown University, 2016.

Greenburg, K. Case by Case: ISIS Prosecutions in the United States. Center on National Security, Fordham Law, 2016.

Hodgkinson, S. Are Ad-hoc Tribunals an Effective Tool for prosecuting International Terrorism Cases? Emory International Law Review, Vol. 24, 2010: 515-525.

Waters, T. Yezidis v. ISIS at the ICC: Why the fight for Genocide Charges is an Uphill Battle. Foreign Affairs, Mar. 29, 2016.

SQ Press, Closing Guantanamo, Sept. 30, 2016

 U.S. Common Law Regarding Guantanamo

Rasul v. Bush, 542 U.S. 466 (2004)

Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, 542 U.S. 507 (2004)

Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, 548 U.S. 557 (2006)

Boumediene v. Bush, 553 U.S. 723 (2008)

US Criminal Prosecutions Regarding Abu Ghraib

U.S. v. Harman, 66 M.J. 710 (1965)

U.S. v. Graner, 66 M.J. 104 (2010)

U.S. v. Smith, 68 M.J. 316 (2010)

U.S. v. England, WL 6842645 (2009)

U.S. Common Law regarding U.S. Detainees and Right to Due Process

Ex parte Milligan, 71 U.S. 2 (1868)

Ex Parte Quirin, 317 U.S. 1 (1942)

Johnson v. Eisentrager, 339 U.S. 763 (1950)

Braden v. 30thJudicial Circuit of Kentucky , 410 U.S. 484 (1973)

Rumsfeld v. Padilla, 542 U.S. 426 (2004)

U.S. Common Law Regarding Judicial Limits on Executive War Powers

Prize Cases, 67 U.S. 635 (1863)

In Re: Yamashita, 327 U.S. 1 (1946)

Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer, 343 U.S. 579 (1952)

Domestic Adherence to the Rule of Law in the Fight Against Terrorism

Apuzzo, M., Fink, S., & Risen, J. How US Torture Left a Legacy of Damaged Minds, N.Y. Times, Oct. 9, 2016

Johnson, D., Mora, A., & Schmidt, A. The Strategic Costs of Torture: How Enhanced Interrogation Hurt America, Foreign Affairs, September/October 2016.

Wagstaff, R. Terror Detentions and the Rule of Law: US and UK Perspectives, in The Rule of Law, Chapter 5: 114-146. 2014.

Aronofsky, D. The War on Terror: Where We Have Been, Are, and Should Be Going. Denver Journal of International Law & Policy, Vol. 40, 2011.

International Prosecutions Regarding Illegal Detentions and Torture

Rodriguez v. Honduras (1988)

Delalic Case (1997)

Pinochet (2000)

Scilingo Cases (2001) 

Al-Adsani v. United Kingdom (2001)

Ad Hoc Courts

 Updated Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. 2009.

Akhavan, P., et al. The Contribution of Ad Hoc Tribunals to International Humanitarian Law, American University. International Law Review,. Vol. 13, No. 6, 1998: 1509-1539.

Handbook for the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, 2008.


ICC Has No Jurisdiction to Prosecute ISIS Despite “Crimes of Unspeakable Cruelty”, The Guardian, 2015.

El Shahed, S. Prosecuting ISIS poses Challenges to International Justice, Al Arabiya News, 2014.

Morris, M. High Crimes and Misconceptions: The ICC and Non-Party StatesLaw and Contemporary Problems. Vol. 64, No. 1, 2001: 13-66.

Asymmetric War

Mazzar, M. The Folly of Asymmetric WarThe Washington Quarterly, Vol. 31, No. 3, 2008: 33-53.

Non State Actors, 76 Int’l L. Ass’n Rep. Conf. 686 (2014)
Non State Actors, 75 Int’l L. Ass’n Rep. Conf. 658 (2012)
Non State Actors, 74 Int’l L. Ass’n Rep. Conf. 630 (2010)

For all ILA docs: (Subscribers only)

Beytenbrod, S. Defining Aggression: An Opportunity to Curtail the Criminal Activities of Non-State Actors. Brooklyn Journal of International Law, Vol. 36, No.2, 2011: 1-19.

Wood, G. What ISIS Really Wants. The Atlantic, 2015.

McCants, W. Islamic Scripture is Not the Problem. Foreign Affairs, 2015. 

Stern, J., and Berger, J.M.  ISIS: The State of Terror. 2015.

McInnis, K. Coalition Contributions to Countering the Islamic State. Congressional Research Service. April, 2016.

Page, Rob. ISIS and the Sectarian Conflict in the Middle East. House of Commons Library. March, 2015.


Khatab, S. The Power of Sovereignty: The Political and Ideological Philosophy of Sayyid Qutb. Routledge Studies in Political Islam, First Edition. 2006.

Weber, C. Reconsidering Statehood: Examining the Sovereignty/Intervention Boundary. Review of International Studies, Vol. 18, No. 3, 1992: 199-216.

Lara, R. The Problem of Sovereignty, International Law and Intellectual Conscience. Journal of the Philosophy of International Law, Vol. 5, No. 1,  2014: 1-26.

Grant, T. Defining Statehood: The Montevidio Convention and its DiscontentsJournal of Transnational Law, Vol. 34, 1999: 403-457. 

Lewis, D. Suppressing Foreign Terrorist Fighters and Supporting Principled Humanitarian Action: A Provisional Framework for Analyzing State Practice. 2015.

Threat Financing

European Commission/US Treasury: Joint Report on Threat Financing. 2013. 

Funding of ISIS

The Center for Analysis of Terrorism, ISIS Financing, 2015.

F.A.T.F. Financing of the Terrorist Organisation Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). 2015.
al-Khatteeb, L. How Iraq’s Black Market in Oil funds ISIS. CNN, 2014.

Oil, Extortion, Crime: Where ISIS gets its money. NBC, 2014.

Davis, J.H. Enforcer at Treasury is First line of Attack against ISIS. The New Work Times, 2014.

Rhodan, M. Treasury Department’s Anti-Terrorism Chief Says cutting off ISIS Fund of High Importance. TIME, 2014.

Di Giovanni, J., Goodman, L., & Sharkov, D. How does ISIS Fund its Reign of Terror? Newsweek, 2014.

Northam, J. UN Security Council Passes Resolution Targeting ISIS Funding, NPR, 2014.

Security Council Resolution 2199. 2015.

Security Council Resolution 2253. 2015. 

Toobin, J. The Legal Logic of the Case Against Hastert. The New Yorker, 2015. 

Friedersdorf, C. Why is it a Crime to Evade Government Scurtiny? The Atlantic, 2015. 

 31 U.S. Code § 5324

United States v. Scanio, 900 F.2d 485 (1990)

Lawsuit against Saudi Arabia

Justice Against Sponsors of Terrorism Act

Justice against Sponsors of Terrorism Act, Pub. L. No. 114-222 (2016)  2040, 105th Cong.

In re Terrorist Attacks on September 1, 2001, No. 03-MDL-1570, slip op. (S.D.N.Y. Sept. 29, 2015) (Opinion Granting The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and The Saudi High Commission for Relief of Bosnia and Herzegovina Motion to Dismiss)

Foreign Sovereign Immunity United States Law

28 U.S. Code 1603-1611 (1976)

A.L.I. Restatement, Fourth, Foreign Relations Law of the United States- Sovereign Immunity. Tentative Draft No. 1, 2015.

28 U.S. Code 605A (2008)

Purpose of Justice Against State Sponsors of Terrorism Act

Schumer, Cornyn Announce “Justice Against Sponsors of Terrorism Act”. Charles E. Schumer United States Senator for New York, 2015.

Senate Passes Cornyn Bill to Help Victims of Terror Attacks Seek Justice. John Cornyn United States Senator for Texas, 2016. 

Schwartz, F. Senate Passes Bill Permitting 9/11 Victims’ Families to Sue Saudi Arabia. The Wall Street Journal, 2016.

Zengerle, P. Senate Passes Bill Allowing 9/11 Victims to sue Saudi Arabia. Reuters, 2016.

After Rejecting Obama Veto, Lawmakers Now Have Doubts About 9/11 Lawsuit Bill. Fortune, Sept. 30, 2016

Obama Administration’s Response

Graham, D. Why Obama Vetoed the 9/11 Lawsuit Bill. The Atlantic, 2016.

In an Interview With Charlie Rose, President Barack Obama Discusses the Decision to Send More U.S. Troops to Iraq and if the Mysterious 28 Pages of 9.11 Documents Should Remain Classified. CBS News, 2016.

Press Briefing by the Press Secretary Josh Earnest. The White House, 2016.

Saudi Arabia’s Response

Mazzetti, M. Saudi Arabia Warns of Economic Fallout if Congress Passes 9/11 Bill. New York Times, 2016.

Mazzetti, M. Senate Passes Bill Exposing Saudi Arabia to 9/11 Legal Claims. New York Times, 2016.

Justice Against Sponsors of Terrorism Act (JASTA)

August, 2012, Opinion to Judgment Mandate re: Order of District Court on In re Terrorist Attacks on September 11, 2001 (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia et al.)

September 29, 2015, Opinion Granting The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and The Saudi High Commission for Relief of Bosnia and Herzegovina Motion to Dismiss

June 8, 2016, Brief of Defendants-Appellees The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and The Saudi High Commission for Relief of Bosnia and Herzegovina Motion to Dismiss

July 25, 2016, Reply Brief for Plaintiffs-Appellants

August 10, 2016, Brief for Plaintiffs Appellants

Other Terrorism Lawsuits

Stempel, J. U.S. Court Voids $655 Million Verdict Against PLO Over Israel attacks. Reuters, 2016.

Sokolow et al v. Palestine Liberation Organization et al, 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, No. 15-3135 slip. op. (2d Cir. Aug. 31 2016) 

Rapoport, M. PLO Settles Klinghoffer Suit over Achille Lauro Murder, Wall Street Journal,1997.

Klinghoffer v. PLO, 937 F.2d 44, 19 Fed. R. Serv. 3d (Callaghan) 1277, 1991 AMC 2751, 1991 U.S. App. Decision.

Klinghoffer v. SNC Achille Lauro, 739 F. Supp. 854 (S.D.N.Y. 1990)

Prosecuting Perpetrators of Sexual Violence

Rogers, S. Sexual Violence or Rape as a Constituent Act of Genocide: Lessons from the Ad Hoc Tribunals and a Prescription for the International Criminal Court. George Washington International Law Review, Vol. 48, 2016.

United Nation’s Human Rights Council. “They Came to Destroy’: ISIS Crimes Against the Yazidis.” U.N. Doc. A/HRC/32/CRP.2 (June 15, 2016)

Sellers, P. The Prosecution of Sexual Violence in conflict: The Importance of Human Rights as Means of Interpretation. Guidance Document Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (October 28, 2009).

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