CENTER FOR ETHICS AND THE RULE OF LAW​

Preventing and Treating the Invisible Wounds of War

Combat Trauma and Psychological Injury

December 3 -
 5, 2015

The Conference

The financial burdens of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) alone on U.S. economy are estimated to range in the billions of dollars.  The financial toll of PTSD does not account for the full societal and moral impact of mental health-related combat injuries.  Those suffering from PTSD and traumatic brain injury (TBI) often have difficulty finding gainful employment, are prone to violent outbursts and substance abuse, experience marital problems and exhibit suicidal tendencies.  These behaviors have a disruptive effect on veterans’ spouses, extended families, and communities as well.  In addition, recent research suggests that PTSD is heritable through multiple generations, further expanding the long-term effects and costs of the condition.  Further, psychological harm related to the conduct of hostilities impacts civilians, particularly women and children, increasing the collateral costs of war. Taking these and other consequences of combat trauma into account within traditional Just War Theory presents significant challenges for civilian and military leadership. Should mental health costs to service members and civilians in areas of conflict be included in the calculations of governments contemplating whether to engage in an armed conflict?  Should battlefield commanders assess potential mental harms to civilians as part of the proportionality analysis of “collateral damage” conducted prior to each military engagement? Are mental harms commensurable with physical damage?  By what metric they be included in an assessment of the costs of war?

Additionally, while PTSD continues to be perceived as the archetypical psychological combat-related syndrome, there are other less discussed combat-related psychological harms.  When a service member witnesses or commits a transgression from deeply held moral beliefs and expectations, he or she may suffer from what has been termed “moral injury.”  Should moral injury be recognized as a mental health concern that is distinct from PTSD?  Are soldiers particularly vulnerable to moral injury while confronting non-state actors embedded in civilian population?  Is the conduct of senior leaders particularly significant in contributing to moral injury?

Further questions arise in considering possible measures to prevent combat trauma instead of waiting for its otherwise inevitable occurrence and seeking treatment.  Inoculating soldiers to the horrors of warfare through pre-deployment battlefield simulations or through pharmacological intervention may reduce the likelihood of trauma.  Such prevention programs, however, have been criticized as desensitizing soldiers to moral indignation and reducing their capacity for sound moral decision making in combat.  Additional dilemmas arise in the therapeutic context.  PTSD treatment in the proximity of the battlefield facilitates expedient return to active duty, but may also decrease the potential of full long-term recovery.  Likewise, certain medications may alleviate the suffering from PTSD but hinder the healing of moral injuries.  Should these aspects of treatment protocols be considered, and if so how should they be weighed?  Finally, there are important legal and ethical questions relating to criminal and civil liability of service members suffering from mental harms. Should war inflicted mental harms be taken into account in criminal trials?  If so, should they constitute an affirmative defense, a basis for mitigation in sentencing, or as a consideration to be weighed in the exercise of prosecutorial discretion?  

The purpose of this conference is to engage in two days of constructive discussion pertaining to such queries, sparked by carefully selected background readings. 

Schedule

Thursday, December 3Fitts Auditorium, University of Pennsylvania Law School
3501 Sansom Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104
4:30 p.m. – 6:00 p.m.Keynote SpeechZainab Hawa BanguraSpecial Representative to the Secretary General on Sexual Violence in Conflict Free and Open to the Public
6:00 p.m. – 7:00 p.m. Cocktail Reception
Friday, December 4Singh Center for Nanotechnology
3205 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104
9:00 a.m. – 9:45 a.m.Registration & Breakfast
9:45 a.m. – 10:00 a.m.Welcome Remarks
10:00 a.m. – 11:15 a.m.Session 1: The Nature of Combat Injury and Its Social ImplicationsModerator: Professor Claire FinkelsteinWhat is the nature of psychological combat injury? What are the financial and social costs of PTSD to society ? What is the impact of these mental health injuries on family members and future generations? 
11:15 a.m. – 11:45 a.m.Break
11:45 a.m. – 1:00 p.m.Session 2: Understanding TraumaModerator: Dr. Steve Xenakis
The mental health profession has taken an increased interest in trauma in various settings in recent years. What are the recent developments in our understanding of the concept of trauma?  Does gender play a role in the processing of traumatic events? How does combat trauma relate to other forms of trauma such as sexual assault?
1:00 p.m. – 2:15 p.m. Lunch
2:15 p.m. – 3:30 p.m.Session 3: Combat Trauma As Moral InjuryModerator: Professor Nancy ShermanExperts in the study of PTSD sometimes distinguish combat trauma from moral injury. Should moral injury be recognized as a distinct mental health concern separate from PTSD? Are soldiers particularly vulnerable to moral injury while confronting non-state actors, particularly those embedded in civilian populations? Is the conduct of senior military leaders particularly significant in contributing to moral injury?
3:30 p.m. – 4:00 p.m.Break
4:00 p.m. – 6:00 p.m.Session 4:  Keynote Panel — Mental Health Injury as a Cost of WarPanel Discussion: Dr. Edna FoaDr. Charles HogeMr. Eric Newhouse, Moderator: Dr. Steve XenakisFree and Open to the Public – Fitts Auditorium, University of Pennsylvania Law School, 3501 Sansom Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104Should mental health costs to service members and civilians in areas of conflict be included in the calculations of governments contemplating whether to engage in an armed conflict? Should battlefield commanders assess potential mental harms to civilians as part of the proportionality analysis of “collateral damage” conducted prior to each military engagement? Are mental harms commensurate with physical damage? By what metric they be included in an assessment of the costs of war? 
6:00 p.m. – 8:00 p.m.Participant DinnerIntroductory Remarks: Captain Robert G. Fuller Jr.  Presentation: Mr. Eric A. Banrevy Guerra, Former Corporal, United States Marine Corps
Saturday, December 5Singh Center for Nanotechnology
3205 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104
8:45 a.m. – 9:30 a.m.Breakfast
9:30 a.m. – 10:45 a.m.Session 5: Ethical Dilemmas in the Treatment and Prevention of PTSDModerator: Professor Connie RosatiThere is a movement within the military community to combat PTSD with therapy and medication, both after its onset and even before the soldier goes into combat. What are the current efforts being made toward treatment and prevention of psychological injuries? What potential ethical dilemmas do these various treatments present?
10:45 a.m. – 11:15 a.m.Break
11:15 a.m. – 12:30 p.m.Session 6: Psychological Injury and Legal ResponsibilityModerator: Professor Stephen MorseCombat induced PTSD and psychological injury have yet to be adequately addressed by the criminal justice system. Should war-inflicted mental harms be taken into account in criminal trials? If so, should they constitute an affirmative defense, a basis for mitigation in sentencing, or simply a consideration to be weighed in the exercise of prosecutorial discretion? 
12:30 p.m. – 2:00 p.m.Lunch: Keynote Speaker – Dr. Bessel van der KolkNeuroscience Research Clarifies the Nature of Traumatic Stress: Implications for Treatment and InterventionThis event has been moved to the Levy Conference Room at Penn Law School, 3501 Sansom Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104
2:15 p.m. – 3:30 p.m.Session 7: Post Bellum Obligations and The Duties We Owe to Soldiers  This event has been moved to the Levy Conference Room at Penn Law School, 3501 Sansom Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104Moderator: Professor Jens Ohlin Psychological trauma does not end on the battlefield and its effects last long after soldiers return to civilian life. Do the mental harms our soldiers suffer impose an expanded set of duties on the nation as a whole? What are the societal responsibilities (both civilian and governmental) we owe to soldiers as they return to civilian life? What are the jus post-bellum considerations related to the mental harms inflicted on the populations in which war was conducted? 

Participants

Larry Alexander

Warren Distinguished Professor of Law
The University of San Diego School of Law

Kim Ferzan

Professor of Law
The Rutgers Law School

Chris Melenovsky

ILP Academic Administrator, Philosophy PhD Candidate
University of Pennsylvania

Background Readings

Preventing and Treating the Invisible Wounds of War:  Combat Trauma and Psychological Injury

Etiology, Treatment and Prevention

D. T.  Acheson et al., Conditioned Fear and Extinction Learning Performance and Its Association with Psychiatric Symptoms in Active Duty Marines, 51 Psychoneuroendocrinology 495–505 (2015), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306453014003783.

Chris J. Antal and Kathy Winings, Moral Injury, Soul Repair, and Creating a Place for Grace, 110 Religious Education 382-394 (2015), DOI:10.1080/00344087.2015.1063962

Russell Bryant Carr, Authentic Solicitude: What the Madness of Combat Can Teach Us About Authentically Being-With Our Patients, 9 International Journal of Psychology: Self Psychology 115-130 (2014)

Fear ItselfA mental illness caused by trauma may be one of the first to be understood in physical termsThe Economist, October 24, 2015. 

Matthew Feldner, Candice Monson & Matthew Friedman, A Critical Analysis of Approaches to Targeted PTSD Prevention: Current Status and Theoretically Derived Future Directions, 31 Behavior modification 80–116 (2007), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17179532.

Edna Foa, Prolonged Exposure Therapy: Past, Present, and Future, 28 Depress. Anxiety 1043–7 (2011), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22134957.

Charles W. Hoge & Christopher H. Warner, Estimating PTSD prevalence in US veterans: considering combat exposure, PTSD checklist cutpoints, and DSM-5, 75 The Journal of clinical psychiatry 1439–41 (2014).

Charles W. Hoge et al., Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in U.S. Soldiers Returning From Iraq, 358 The New England journal of med. 453–63 (2008), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18234750. 

Charles W. Hoge et al., Combat Duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, Mental Health Problems, and Barriers to Care, 351 The New England Journal of Med. 13-22 (2004).

Elisa A. Hurley, Combat Trauma and the Moral Risks of Memory Manipulating Drugs, 27 Journal of Applied Philosophy 221-245 (2010), http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-5930.2010.00492.x/abstract.

Łukasz Kamienski, Helping the Postmodern Ajax: Is Managing Combat Trauma Through Pharmacology a Faustian Bargain?, 39 Armed Forces & Society 395–414 (2012), http://afs.sagepub.com/content/39/3/395.short.

Rachel M. MacNair, Perpetration-Induced Traumatic Stress in Combat Veterans, 8 Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology 63-72 (2002).

Mark W. Miller et al., Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in DSM-5: New Criteria and Controversies, 21 Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 208–220 (2014), http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/cpsp.12070 

Alan E. Peterson et al., Assessment and Treatment of Combat-Related PTSD in Returning War Veterans, 18 Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings 164–75 (2011), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21626355.

Paula Schnurr et al., Posttraumatic stress disorder and quality of life: Extension of findings to veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, 29 Clinical Psychology Review 727-735 (2009) 

Hans Pols & Stephanie Oak, War & Military Mental Health The US Psychiatric Response in the 20th Century, 97 Public Health Then and Now 21.32 – 21.42 (Dec. 2007)

Rajeev Ramchand et al., Prevalence of, risk factors for, and consequences of posttraumatic stress disorder and other mental health problems in military populations deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan17 Current Psychiatry Reports 575 (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11920-015-0575-z

Maria M. Steenkamp & Brett T. Litz, One-Size-Fits-All Approach to PTSD in the VA Not Supported by the Evidence, 69 The American psychologist 706–7 (2014), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25265298.

Maria Steenkamp, William Nash & Brett Litz, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Review of the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Program, 44 Am. J. Prev. Med. 507–12 (2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749379713000810.

Terri Tanielian et al, Invisible Wounds of War: Summary and Recommendations for Addressing Psychological and Cognitive Injuries. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2008. http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG720z1. 

Bessel van der Kolk, Clinical Implications of Neuroscience Research in PTSD, New York Academy of Sciences, 2006

Bessel van der Kolk, The Body Keeps the Score: Brain, Mind, and Trauma in the Healing of Trauma, (2014)

Frank Weathers et al., Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in DSM-5: New Criteria, New Measures, and Implications for Assessment, 7 Psychol. Inj. and Law 93 -107 (2014)

Blair E. Wisco et al., Posttraumatic stress disorder in the US veteran population: results from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study, 75 The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1338–46 (2014).

Stephen N. Xenakis, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Beyond Best Practices, 31 Psychoanalytic Psychology 236-44 (2013). 

Stephen N. Xenakis, The Role and Responsibilities of Psychiatry in 21st Century Warfare, 42 J. Am. Acad. Psychiatry Law 504-08 (2014).

Kate Yurgil et al., Association Between Traumatic Brain Injury and Risk of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Active-Duty Marines, 71 JAMA psychiatry 149–57 (2014), http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleID=1785175.

General

Morten Dige, Explaining the Principle of Mala in Se, 11 Journal of Military Ethics 318-32 (2012).

Robert G. Fuller, Jr., Flashback Morning 

Christopher Frueh et al., Disability Compensation Seeking Among Veterans Evaluated for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, 54 Psychiatric Services 84–91 (2003), http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/appi.ps.54.1.84.

Paul Heaton et al., Compensating Wounded Warriors, Santa Monica, CA; RAND Corporation 2012.   

Judith Herman, A Forgotten Historyin Trauma and Recovery: the aftermath of violence—from domestic abuse to political terror 7-32 (1992).

David S. Loughran, Paul Heaton, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and the Earnings of Military Reservists, Santa Monica, CA; RAND Corporation, 2013.

Shannon Meehan, Beyond Duty, (2011)

Don Vaughan, Defusing, Military Officer (2015)

Sean Wead, Ethics, Combat, and a Soldier’s Decision to Kill, Military Review 69-81 (2015). 

Moral Injury

Kent D. Drescher et al., An Exploration of the Viability and Usefulness of the Construct of Moral Injury in War Veterans, 17 Traumatology 8–13 (2011), http://tmt.sagepub.com/content/17/1/8.

W. Brad Johnson, The Morally-Injured Veteran: Some Ethical Considerations, 1 Spirituality in Legal Practice 16-17 (2014), http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/scp/1/1/16/.

Brett Litz et al., Moral Injury and Moral Repair in War Veterans: A Preliminary Model and Intervention Strategy, 29 Clinical psychology review 695–706 (2009), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272735809000920 (Excerpt, pp. 695-701).

Duncan MacIntosh, PTSD Weaponized; A Theory of Moral Injury, Abstract | Paper

Shira Maguen & Brett Litz, Moral Injury in Veterans of War, Research Quarterly, 23 PTSD Research Quarterly 1–6 (2012). http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/newsletters/research-quarterly/v23n1.pdf.

William P. Nash & Brett T. Litz, Moral Injury: A Mechanism for War-Related Psychological Trauma in Military Family Members, 16 Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 365–375 (2013), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23852334.

William P. Nash et al., Psychometric Evaluation of the Moral Injury Events Scale, 178 Military Med. 646–52 (2013), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23756071.

Jonathan Shay, Moral Injury, 31 Psychoanalytic Psychology 182–191 (2014) (Excerpt, pp. 182-186).

Nancy Sherman, Afterwar: Healing the Moral Wounds of Soldiers, (Oxford University Press 2015)

Nancy Sherman, Recovering Lost Goodness: Shame, Guilt,and Self-Empathy, 31 Psychoanalytic Psychology 217-35 (2014)

Alison Flipse Vargas et al., Moral injury themes in combat veterans’ narrative responses from the National Vietnam Veterans’ Readjustment Study., 19 Traumatology 243–250 (2013), http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1177/1534765613476099

Mark A. Wilson, Moral Grief and Reflective Virtue, in Virtue and the Moral Life: Theological and Philosophical Perspectives (2014)


Stigmatization and Labeling

Benjamin D. Dickstein et al., Targeting Self-Stigma in Returning Military Personnel and Veterans: A Review of Intervention Strategies, 22 Military Psychology 224-36 (2010).

Matthew Friedman, PTSD is “PTSD”, Dart Center for Journalism & Trauma, Sep. 19, 2012, http://dartcenter.org/content/ptsd-is-ptsd-0#.VclAbRNViko.

Elana Newman, Where All Sides Align, Dart Center for Journalism & Trauma, Sep. 19, 2012, http://dartcenter.org/content/where-all-sides-align#.VclBZhNViko .

Frank Ochberg, An Injury, Not a Disorder, Military Review 96–99 (2013), http://usacac.army.mil/CAC2/MilitaryReview/Archives/English/MilitaryReview_20130430_art014.pdf.

Kerry Sudom et al., Stigma and Barriers to Mental Health Care in Deployed Canadian Forces Personnel, 24 Military Psychology 414-31 (2012). 

News Clips

James P. Cullen, et all, Vets Suffering from PTSD Need Our HelpUSA Today, Nov. 12, 2015, http://www.usatoday.com/story/opinion/2015/11/11/vets-suffering-ptsd-need-our-help-death-row-column/75520218/

Sebastian Junger, How PTSD Became a Problem Far Beyond the Battlefield, Vanity Fair, June 2015

Lauren Koran, Special Ops Commander Tries to Lessen the Stigma of Getting Help, CNN, October 2015

Nicholas Kristof, War WoundsN.Y. Times, Aug. 10, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/12/opinion/sunday/war-wounds.html

David Philipps, In Unit Stalked by Suicide, Veterans Try to Save One Another, N.Y. Times, Sept. 19, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/20/us/marine-battalion-veterans-scarred-by-suicides-turn-to-one-another-for-help.html

Douglas A. Pryer, Moral Injury and the American SoldierMoral Injury and Military Suicide, Cicero Magazine, http://ciceromagazine.com/features/moral-injury-and-the-american-soldier (2014)

Nancy Sherman, The deepest war wound may be the anguish of moral injury, LA Times, Apr. 24, 2015, http://www.latimes.com/opinion/op-ed/la-oe-sherman-moral-injury-veterans-20150426-story.html.

David Wood, Moral Injury, The Huffington Post, http://projects.huffingtonpost.com/moral-injury (2014)

Required Readings

FRIDAY, DECEMBER 4

Session 1:   The Nature of Combat Injury and its Social Implications

Nicholas Kristof, War WoundsN.Y. Times, Aug. 10, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/12/opinion/sunday/war-wounds.html

David Philipps, In Unit Stalked by Suicide, Veterans Try to Save One Another, N.Y. Times, Sept. 19, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/20/us/marine-battalion-veterans-scarred-by-suicides-turn-to-one-another-for-help.html

Charles W. Hoge & Christopher H. Warner, Estimating PTSD prevalence in US veterans: considering combat exposure, PTSD checklist cutpoints, and DSM-5, 75 The Journal of clinical psychiatry 1439–41 (2014).

Rajeev Ramchand et al., Prevalence of, risk factors for, and consequences of posttraumatic stress disorder and other mental health problems in military populations deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, 17 Current Psychiatry Reports 575 (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11920-015-0575-z


Session 2:  Understanding Trauma

Judith Herman, A Forgotten Historyin Trauma and Recovery: the aftermath of violence—from domestic abuse to political terror 7-32 (1992).

Bessel van der Kolk, The History of Trauma in Psychiatryin Handbook of PTSD, First Edition: Science and Practice 19–36 (2007), https://books.google.com/books?id=zCEs1Rn6Dh8C&printsec=frontcover – v=onepage&q&f=false

Mark W. Miller et al., Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in DSM-5: New Criteria and Controversies, 21 Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 208–220 (2014), http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/cpsp.12070 

Frank Ochberg, An Injury, Not a Disorder, Military Review 96–99 (2013), http://usacac.army.mil/CAC2/MilitaryReview/Archives/English/MilitaryReview_20130430_art014.pdf.

Session 3:  Combat Trauma As Moral Injury

Jonathan Shay, Moral Injury, 31 Psychoanalytic Psychology 182–191 (2014) (Excerpt, pp. 182-186).

Robert G. Fuller, Jr., Flashback Morning 

Brett Litz et al., Moral Injury and Moral Repair in War Veterans: A Preliminary Model and Intervention Strategy, 29 Clinical psychology review 695–706 (2009), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272735809000920 (Excerpt, pp. 695-701).

William P. Nash & Brett T. Litz, Moral Injury: A Mechanism for War-Related Psychological Trauma in Military Family Members, 16 Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review 365–375 (2013), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23852334.

William P. Nash et al., Psychometric Evaluation of the Moral Injury Events Scale, 178 Military med. 646–52 (2013), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23756071.

Eric Newhouse, Recovering from the Invisible Wounds of WarAbstract | Paper

Nancy Sherman, Recovering Lost Goodness: Shame, Guilt,and Self-Empathy, 31 Psychoanalytic Psychology 217-35 (2014)

SATURDAY, DECEMBER 5

Session 5:  Ethical Dilemmas in the Treatment and Prevention of PTSD

Edna Foa, Prolonged Exposure Therapy: Past, Present, and Future, 28 Depress. Anxiety 1043–7 (2011), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22134957.

Maria M. Steenkamp & Brett T. Litz, One-Size-Fits-All Approach to PTSD in the VA Not Supported by the Evidence, 69 The American psychologist 706–7 (2014), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25265298.

Elisa A. Hurley, Combat Trauma and the Moral Risks of Memory Manipulating Drugs, 27 Journal of Applied Philosophy 221-245 (2010), http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-5930.2010.00492.x/abstract.

Łukasz Kamienski, Helping the Postmodern Ajax: Is Managing Combat Trauma Through Pharmacology a Faustian Bargain?, 39 Armed Forces & Society 395–414 (2012), http://afs.sagepub.com/content/39/3/395.short. 

Kevin Govern and Stephen Xenakis, The Code of Conduct–Not Legislated But Trained In Peacetime and Lived in Combat and Captivity To Achieve Mental and Physical Resilience and Avoid Moral InjuryAbstract | Paper

Duncan MacIntosh, PTSD Weaponized; A Theory of Moral Injury, Abstract | Paper

Session 6:  Psychological Injury and Legal Responsibility

Jonathan Shay, No Sugar Coating: Combat Trauma and Criminal Conduct [Draft – not for distribution]

Thomas L. Hafemeister & Nicole A. Stockey,Last Stand? The Criminal Responsibility of War Veterans Returning from Iraq and Afghanistan with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, 85 Ind. L.J. 87 (2010). (Excerpt. pp. 94, P 101-131).

Melissa Hamilton, Reinvigorating Actus Reus: The Case for Involuntary Actions by Veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, 16 Berkeley J. Crim. L. 350 (2011). (Excerpt.  pp. 340-354,  357-361,  371-390

Session 7:  Post Bellum Obligations and The Duties We Owe to Soldiers

Christopher Frueh et al., Disability Compensation Seeking Among Veterans Evaluated for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, 54 Psychiatric Services 84–91 (2003), http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/appi.ps.54.1.84.

Sean Wead, Ethics, Combat, and a Soldier’s Decision to Kill, Military Review 69-81 (2015). 

Evan R. Seamone, Active Duty Service as the Ultimate Intercept for Diversion of Veterans from Incarceration and Recidivism in the Civilian Criminal Justice System. Abstract | Paper

Nancy Sherman, Afterwar: Healing the Moral Wounds of Soldiers, (Oxford University Press 2015) Chapter 6

Contact us

For any questions regarding the conference or registration, please contact: Jennifer Cohen at [email protected]

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Preventing and Treating the Invisible Wounds of War