Ethical Dilemmas in the Global Defense Industry

April 15 -
 16, 2015

Co-sponsored By:

The Conference

The defense industry operates at the intersection of the public and private sectors in a global arena and routinely interacts with foreign legal systems and diverse cultures.  Navigating these different contexts creates challenges for the defense industry, particularly where legal and ethical norms conflict.  How should a defense industry company conduct business in countries where government officials operate according to different moral norms?  Should the defense industry be responsive to ethical objections to technological developments in the context of surveillance or controversial new weapons such as autonomous weapons systems?  Should the global defense industry be held to a higher standard than other industries given the sensitive and potentially controversial nature of its enterprise?  Domestically, other pressing questions arise.  Should partnerships between the defense industry and institutions of higher learning be encouraged?  Do such partnerships raise ethical concerns?

The purpose of this conference, held in partnership with Lockheed Martin Corporation, is to inspire constructive discussion pertaining to such questions, by bringing  together distinguished practitioners and scholars from the private sector, academia, government service and the military to engage in an in-depth exploration of the moral and legal challenges facing the global defense industry.


 4:30 – 6:00 pmPublic Keynote: “Counterproductive Coalitions”
Ms. Sarah Chayes, Senior Associate, Carnegie Endowment for International PeacePartnering with “front-line” militaries has become a centerpiece of President Obama’s counter-terrorism policy.  Yet the governments those militaries serve might be described as sophisticated criminal organizations, whose core objective is the use of public office to amass personal gain.  Though human rights considerations do constrain some delivery of U.S. military assistance, the problem may be broader than the Leahy Law, for example, draws it.  Are these really the best partners in the effort to combat extremism?  What precautions are being taken to avoid associating the U.S. with the abuses of these governments?  
 6:00 – 7:00 pmCocktail Reception
 7:30 – 9:00 pm Dinner for Conference Participants
8:00 – 8:30 am Breakfast
8:30 – 8:35Welcome Remarks,  Professor Claire O. Finkelstein, Founder and Director of CERL, University of Pennsylvania
8:35 – 9:45 am Session 1Fiduciary Duties and Moral Obligations: Addressing Corruption in Multicultural EnvironmentsModerator: Mr. William R. Craven, Chair of the Executive Board of CERL
9:45  – 10:15 am Break
10:15 – 11:30 am Session 2Assessing Legal Standards in the Defense Industry from an Ethical PerspectiveModerator: Mr. Mark Pyman, Transparency International UK
 11:30 am – 1:00 pmLunch and Keynote: Promoting Ethical Decision-making in the Defense IndustryDr. Patricia J. Harned, CEO, Ethics and Compliance Officers Association and Ethics Resource CenterThere is evidence that organizations can empower individual employees to make good decisions in everyday business, by creating cultures and programs that foster ethics and compliance.  Dr. Harned will present findings from the Ethics Research Center’s (ERC) longitudinal study of the industry through the Defense Industry Benchmark (DIB), a project of the Defense Industry Initiative (DII). 
 1:00 – 2:15 pm Session 3Ethical Dilemmas in New TechnologiesModerator: Professor George R. Lucas Jr., University of Notre Dame
 2:15 – 2:45 pm Break
 2:45 – 4:00 pm Session 4Should Universities Partner with the Defense Industry?Moderator: Professor Claire O. Finkelstein, University of Pennsylvania


Mr. Jamal Ahmed

Vice President, Internal Audit and Chief Ethics Officer, Day&Zimmermann  

Major General Thomas E. Ayres

Deputy Judge Advocate, U.S. Army

Judge Harold Berger

Managing Shareholder, Berger & Montague, P.C.

Ms. Sarah Chayes

Senior Associate, Democracy and Rule of Law Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

Mr. William R. Craven

Federal Systems

Professor Michael Davis

Illinois Institute of Technology, Philosophy

Ms. Arlene Fickler

Partner, Schnader Harrison Segal & Lewis LLP

Professor Claire Finkelstein

University of Pennsylvania, Law and Philosophy

Ms. Ashling Gallagher

Research Fellow for Center for Ethics and the Rule of Law, University of Pennsylvania

Professor Kevin Govern

Ave Maria School of Law

Mr. Paul Haaga, Jr.

Former Acting President and CEO of NPR

Dr. Patricia Harned

CEO, Ethics and Compliance Officers Association and Ethics Resource Center

Professor Nancy F. Hite

Tufts University, International Affairs

Mr. Eric Kantor

Deputy General Counsel and Chief Compliance Officer, General Electric Aviation Operation

Major General (ret.) Robert Latiff, Ph.D.

University of Notre Dame, Reilly Center for Science, Technology, and Values

Professor Sarah E. Light

University of Pennsylvania, Legal Studies and Business Ethics

Professor George R. Lucas Jr.

United States Naval Academy, Ethics

Professor Duncan MacIntosh

Dalhousie University, Philosophy

Dr. Leo S. Mackay Jr.

Vice President, Ethics & Business Conduct, Lockheed Martin Corporation

Ms. Blair C. Marks

Director, Ethics Awareness and Operations, Lockheed Martin Corporation 

Professor Christopher W. Morris

University of Maryland, Philosophy

Professor Philip M. Nichols

University of Pennsylvania, Legal Studies and Business Ethics

Mr. C. Edward Peartree

Department of State

Mr. Dean Popps

Former Assistant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition, Logistics and Technology

Mr. Mark Pyman

Director, International Defense & Security Programme, Transparency International UK

Mr. Ilya Rudyak

Director of Research for Center for Ethics and the Rule of Law, University of Pennsylvania

Mr. Timothy Schultz

Director, Business Ethics and Compliance for Raytheon Company

Professor Joshua I. Schwartz

George Washington University, Government Contracts Law

Lt. Gen (ret.) Harry E. Soyster

Center for Immigration Studies

Professor Jessica Tillipman

George Washington University, Law

Mr. Frank Vogl

Co-Founder, Transparency International

Ms. Gay Walling

Corporate and Foundation Relations Officer, University of Pennsylvania

Professor Patricia Werhane

DePaul University, Philosophy

Brigadier General (ret.) Stephen Xenakis

Center for Translational Medicine; Physicians for Human Rights

Professor Christopher R. Yukins

George Washington University, Government Procurement Law

Mr. Jules Zacher

Council for a Livable World, Attorney at Law

Background Readings


Ethics in Government Act of 1978, 5 U.S.C. App. § 101 (2012).

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, 15 U.S.C. §§ 78dd-1 (1998).

Procurement Integrity Act of 1988, 41 U.S.C.A. §§ 2102 (2011)

Requirement of Exemplary Conduct, 10 U.S.C. § 3583 (2014)

DOD 5500.07-R, The Joint Ethics Regulation (2011).

Exec. Order No. 12674, “Principles of Ethical Conduct for Government Officers and Employees,” (Apr. 12, 1989).

Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) 3.103 (2013). Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3  

Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Executive Branch, 5 C.F.R. pt. 2635 (2014).


American Association of University Professors, Academic Freedom and National Security in a Time of Crisis

Association of American Universities,  National Defense Education and Initiative: Meeting America’s Security Challenges in the 21st Century (2006).

Barton H. Halpern, Keith F. Snider, Products that Kill and Corporate Social Responsibility: The Case of U.S. Defense Firms , 38.4 Armed Forces & Society (2012).

Brenda Kowske, Ethical Dilemmas Across Cultures, CEO Middle East, Sept. 2007, at 54.

Charlie Cray, Lee Drutman, Corporations and the Public Purpose: Restoring the Balance, 4.1 Seattle J. for Social Justice (2005)

Connie Glaser, Doing a Good Job Isn’t Enough – ‘Cultural Astuteness’ is Needed to Succeed , Business First – Louisville (July 2009).

David Ginsberg and Robert Bohn, Let’s Get Personal: A Guide to the Interpretation and Implementation of the FAR Personal Conflicts of Interest Rules, 47.4 The Procurement Lawyer 11 (2012).

Deborah G. Johnson, Technology with no Human Responsibility?, J. Bus. Ethics (2014).

David Miller, Tom Mills, Counterinsurgency and Terror Expertise: The Integration of Social Scientists into the War Effort, 23 Cambridge Review of International Affairs (2010).

Doreen Lustig, The Nature of the Nazi State and the Question of International Criminal Responsibility of Corporate Officials at Nuremberg: Revisiting Franz Neumann’s Concept of Behemoth at the Industrialist Trials, 43 N.Y.U. J. INT’L L. & POL. 965 (2011).

Edmund F. Byrne, Assessing Arms Makers’ Corporate Social Responsibility , 74 J. Bus. Ethics (2007).

Gavin Maitland, The Ethics of the International Arms Trade , 7.4 Bus. Ethics (1998).

George Lucas, The Ethics of Defense and Private Security Contracting, in Military Ethics: What Everyone Needs to Know (forthcoming). 

George Lucas, Legal and Ethical Precepts Governing Emerging Military Technologies: Research and Use, 5 Utah L. Rev. (2013).

Henry A. Giroux, The Militarization of US Higher Education After 9/11, 25.5 Theory, Culture, & Society (2008).

John Bryan Warnock, Principled or Practical Responsibility: 60 Years of Discussion, 41 Pub. Cont. L.J. 881 (2012).

Joseph C. Bryce, Thomas J. Gibson, and Daryn E. Rush, Ethics in Government, 29Am. Crim. L. Rev. 315 (1991).

Joseph W. Yockey, Choosing Governance in the FCPA Reform Debate, Journal of Corporation Law 881 (2012).

Joshua Newberg and Richard Dunn, Keeping Secrets in the Campus Lab: Law, Values, and Rules of Engagement for Industry-University R&D Partnerships (2002).

Leslie Green, Legal Positivism, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Sept. 2009).

Margot Cleveland, Christopher M. Favo, Thomas J. Frecka, Charles L. Owens, Trends in the International Fight Against Bribery .

Mark Pyman, Regina Wilson, Dominic Scott,The Extent of Single Sourcing in Defense Procurement and its Relevance as a Corruption Risk: A First Look, 20.3 Defense and Peace Economics 215 (2009).

Michael N. Tennison, Jonathan D. Moreno, Neuroscience, Ethics, and National Security: The State of the Art, 10.3 Plos Biology (2012).

Nancy Hite-Rubin, A Corruption, Military Procurement and FDI Nexus?, in Greed, Corruption, and the Modern State: Essays in Political Economy (Susan Rose-Ackerman and Paul Lagunes eds., forthcoming).

Peter Hayes, Corporate Freedom of Action in Nazi Germany, Bulletin of the German Historical Institute 29 (2008).

Philip Brey, Anticipatory Ethics for Emerging Technologies, 6 Nanoethics (2012).

Philip M. Nichols, The Business Case for Complying with Bribery Laws, 49.2 Am. Bus. L.J. 325 (2012).

Robert Latiff, Ethical Issues in Defense Systems Acquisition , in Routledge Handbook of Military Ethics (George Lucas ed., 2015).

Robert Rhoads, The U.S. University as a Global Model: Some Fundamental Problems to Consider, 7.2 InterActions: UCLA Journal of Education and Information Studies (2011). 

Ryan Jay Lambrecht, The Big Payback: How Corruption Taints Offset Agreements in International Defense Trade (2012).

Steven L. Schooner, Desiderata: Objectives for a System of Government Contract Law, 11 Public Procurement Law Review 103 (2002).

Steven L. Schooner and Nathaniel E. Castellano, Review Essay: Reading the Dream Machine: The Untold Story of the Notorious V-22 Osprey, 43.3 Public Contract Law Journal 391 (2014).

Tim Wilson, A Review of Business-University Collaboration, Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (2012).

Tim Shorrock, Blackwater: One of the Pentagon’s Top Contractors for Afghanistan Training, The Nation, Mar. 31, 2015.

Transparency International, Building Integrity and Countering Corruption in Defense and Security: 20 Practical Reforms (2011).

Transparency International, Codes of Conduct in Defense Ministries and Armed Forces: What Makes a Good Code of Conduct? (2011).

Transparency International, Defense Offsets: Addressing the Risks of Corruption & Raising Transparency (2010).

Transparency International, Organized Crime, Corruption, and the Vulnerability of Defense and Security Forces (2011).

Contact us

For any questions regarding the conference or registration, please contact: Jennifer Cohen at

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